This study is mainly a library research.
First, the original text was read thoroughly and then the ST was compared to its translation to find two kinds of errors, namely overtly erroneous errors and covertly erroneous errors. The dependability of the following study is most likely to be determined using an audit trail. Audit trails provide a mechanism by which others can determine how decisions were made and the uniqueness of the situation. The researcher must keep thorough notes and records of activities, and should keep data well organized and in a retrievable form. He or she should provide information on the sample of people studied, the selection process, contextual descriptions, methods of data collection, detailed field notes, tape-recordings, videotapes, and other descriptive material that can be reviewed by other people.
After examining the data, the auditor can consider the findings, conclusions and can show whether they are supported by the data. A complete presentation of procedures and results enables the reader to make a judgment about the replicability of the research within the limits of the natural context. As the study of the whole text is beyond the scope of this study, some scenes which are the representative of the whole text were selected randomly. From among these scenes, ten scenes were chosen hereby: the number of each scene along with its corresponding act was written on twenty six 3 by 2 cm pieces of paper.
From among these twenty six lots, ten was drawn by a seven-year-old student. Surprisingly enough, all the first scenes of every act were chosen by the seven-year-old. It should be noted that the sampling is done based on the Persian translation. There are some inconsistencies between the division and number of Acts in the English and the Persian texts.
The researcher first, read the original text thoroughly and then the ST was compared to its translation to find two kinds of errors, namely overtly erroneous errors and covertly erroneous errors. The errors will be identified and classified and the frequency of their occurrences will be computed to see whether a statistically significant difference exists between the two.
If a TT, in order to be adequate, had to fulfill the requirement of a dimensional, and as a result of this, a functional match, then any mismatch along the dimensions is an error. These are differentiated from those overtly erroneous errors which result either from a mismatch of the denotative meanings of ST and TT elements or from a breach of the target language system.
Figure 1. Source text profile: field. Author's provenance and stance. Social role relationship. Social attitude. Playwright and poet. Figure 2. Source text profile: tenor.
Figure 3. Source text profile: mode. As far as describing the source text genre is concerned it can be said that the source text genre is play tragedy. As with source text function, it can be said that the source text function is ideational. Source Text. Play tragedy. Figure 4. Source text genre and function. Subject matter. Social action. General and popular. Figure 5. Target text profile: field. Translator's provenance and stance. University Instructor and Translator. Figure 6. Target text profile: tenor. Figure 7. Target text profile: mode. Regarding the target text genre, it can be stated that target text genre is, also, play tragedy.
About the target text function, it can be stated that target text function is ideational. Target Text. Figure 8. Target text genre and function. In the following part, the overtly erroneous errors are dealt with. In each Act and Scene some comments regarding the translation are represented.
It should be mentioned that this categorization is carried out by the researcher and can be regarded as a modification to the original model. So, the full responsibility of any mistakes, whatsoever, is completely taken by the researcher. For each category approximately 10 percent of the items are provided. The full analysis of the samples is presented in the Appendix 1. The error is distinguished by means of underlining. First, the comment is provided. Then, the transcription of the Persian translation is provided. Next, the word-for-word translation of the Persian is presented.
Next, the back-translation of the Persian into English is presented in italics. Extra explanations are provided in the parentheses among the transcriptions.
There is a slight difference in meaning. Services which I have done out of loyalty and on the basis of duty are big retributions themselves. Thus, the meaning has been changed significantly. The meaning has been changed significantly. This does not convey the same meaning as the original. There are two different sentences, but, with the same subject in the Persian translation; i. Their daggers were fallen beside their pillows and they were consternated, suffering from mental disorder.
Figure 9. Categorization of overtly erroneous errors along with the frequencies of occurrences of each category accompanied by some examples is presented in the Figure Overtly Erroneous Errors. Some Examples. Not Translated. Act 3, Scene 1: items 6, 12, 24, 26, and Act 3, Scene 6: item 6.
Slight Change in Meaning. Act 1, Scene 4: item 5. Act 2, Scene 1: items 23, 25, 28, and Act 4, Scene 2: item Act 5, Scene 3: item 1. Significant Change in Meaning. Act 3, Scene 1: item Act 3, Scene 6: item Act 4, Scene 1: item 5, and Act 4, Scene 2: item 6. Distortion of Meaning. Act 2, Scene 1: items 1, 8, 17, 51, and Act 3, Scene 1: items 7 and Breach of the TL System.
Act 2, Scene 1: items 72 and Act 4, Scene 2: item 1. Total Number of Errors.
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Figure Categories of Overtly Erroneous Errors and their frequencies. What were presented were some examples of overtly erroneous errors.
This subsection is concerned with presenting the results of the statistical procedures. Furthermore, it aims at finding out whether the hypothesis is rejected or verified. Observed N. Expected N. Covertly Erroneous Errors. Chi-Square a. Monte Carlo. Lower Bound. Upper Bound. The minimum expected cell frequency is Based on sampled tables with starting seed Test Statistics.
Categories of. What remains to be done, from among the previously-mentioned steps are providing a statement of quality with reference to the translation result; and categorizing the translation result into two kinds: overt translation and covert translation. As far as the former is concerned, it can be stated that taking into account the rather high number of observed errors, the Persian translation is suffering from poor quality.
Regarding the latter, it can be stated that the Persian translation can be categorized as a covert kind of translation rather that an overt one. The sole covertly erroneous error i. The overtly erroneous errors were, seemingly, the result of not exactly considering the context of the ST, not taking into consideration the nuances of meaning the ST embraced, misreading the ST, not paying enough attention to the cultural differences between the ST and the TT and also the fact that the ST is a play.
The latter necessitates explaining and providing footnotes regarding the issues which may have an effect on the understanding, on the one hand, and the ability of the assumed players to perform the play, on the other; without being forced to have a constant look on the original text, which is in English. Many of these overtly erroneous errors could have been avoided by consulting the authoritative references or annotated editions of the ST by English Literature scholars. It is worth mentioning that paying enough attention, even to the extent of obsession; to nuances of meaning these kinds of literary texts embrace is another way of avoiding the pitfalls like what have been seen, seemingly.
It should be noted that these results do not blemish this model in any ways; rather, quite vice versa these results show the strength of this particular, yet parsimonious, TQA model.
The findings of the current study may be a means to elicit the translator of this work to revise his translation; also, the current study can be used as a framework for other critics concerning this type of analysis. The verifications and substantiations of the findings in this study demand further investigation. One possibility is that researchers may wish to use other TQA models.
Another possibility is to replicate the study by comparing other languages, texts and cultures. It may also reveal some nice outcomes if the text types are changed, for example, instead of literary texts religious texts can be selected for the study. It can also be done by having a change in the age group of the selected texts.
Finally, another investigation, which can be applicable in this field, can be led by utilizing other media like films, poems, short stories software, corpora, and etc. Thanks to my thesis guide, Dr.
Hojatollah Yamini, my thesis consulting advisor, Dr. Mohammad Mehdi Mortahan for their continued enthusiasm and support for the project; for their dedication and expertise; for maintaining enthusiasm, order, and a steady flow of communication that allowed the project to advance smoothly; for insisting on coherence, clarity, and precision throughout each draft; for scrutinizing every page and alerting me to errors and inconsistencies.
Needless to say that, Responsibilities for the final version is, of course, mine alone. Al-Qinai, J. Translation quality assessment. Strategies, parameters and procedures.
Meta , Ary, D. Introduction to research in Education 6th ed. Belmont: Wadsworth Group. Baker, M. Routledge encyclopedia of Translation Studies. London and New York: Routledge. Routledge encyclopedia of Translation Studies 2nd ed. Abingdon: Routledge. Bateni, M.
Farhang Moaser Living English-Persian dictionary two volumes in one 3rd ed. Tehran: Farhang Moaser Publishers. Braunmuller, A. The new Cambridge Shakespeare Macbeth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. There are 4 main acting areas in addition to multiple walkways scattered throughout the audience.
Every seat is the best seat in the house! Actors walk, fight, and occasionally roll, through the audience en route to each scene. For those who are unfamiliar, Macbeth is one of Shakespeare's most famous tragedies. Macbeth, Thane of Glames is visited by 3 prophetic witches following a bloody battle. The witches inform Macbeth that he shall become the Thane of Cawdor and shortly after, the King of Scotland.
No sooner than the witches vanish into air, Macbeth learns of his promotion to the Thane of Cawdor. In disbelief he writes home to his wife, Lady Macbeth, to tell her of the prophecy. Lady Macbeth decides that her husband must kill the current King, Duncan, in order for the prophecy to come true. After this sinister deed is done chaos, corruption, and full blown ensues ultimately ending with Macbeth's demise.
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His talent is. Brown also shows a great understanding of her character and easily stands on her own during the performance.