Catholics believe that God created the visible world created matter and the invisible one spiritual world of angels, etc. Thus, God created everything. Some early sects, such as the Gnostics, believed that God the Father created the spirit world, but that an "evil" god called the "demiurge" created the similarly evil material world. The creed dispels such a notion. Jesus Christ is the Lord of all.
The title Lord means that Jesus is master of all, and has connotations of deity, since the Hebrew word "adonai" and Greek word "kyrios" both meaning Lord were applied to Yahweh in the Old Testament. However, unlike earthly rulers, Jesus is a friend to the oppressed and a servant. Jesus is in a unique relationship with God the Father. Begotten has the meaning of born, generated, or produced. God the Son is born out of the essence of God the Father. Just as a child shares the same humanness as his or her parents, the Son shares the essential nature of God with the Father.
Since God is eternal, the Son, being begotten of God, is also eternal. God the Son exists in relation to God the Father. The Son is not the Father, but they both are God. Just as a torch is lit one to another, the Father and Son are distinct, but both light. However, the Scriptures have all three persons — Father, Son, and Holy Spirit — interacting at the same time, as shown at Jesus' baptism.
Athanasius, writing during the Nicene era, said the Father and Son are one as "the sight of two eyes is one.
God the Son is not a half-god or inferior to God the Father. God the Son is fully and utterly God, distinct from the Father, yet not divided from the Father. The Arians said Jesus could be called god but not true God. In other words, they wrongly believed the Logos the "Word," a popular title for Jesus in early Christian literature was the first creation of God.
The creed tells us that just as when a woman gives birth she does not create a child out of nothing, being begotten of God, the Son is not created out of nothing. Since the Son's birth from the Father occurred before time was created, begotten refers to a permanent relationship as opposed to an event within time.
God the Father and God the Son are equally divine, united in substance and will. Father and Son share the same substance or essence of divinity. That is, the Father and Son both share the qualities and essential nature that make one in reality God. However, sharing the same substance does not mean they share identity of person.
Jesus came from heaven, from a spiritual reality other than our own. While the creed says "down," it is important to remember that our language is limited by time and spatiality. Heaven is not "up," just as God is not a biologically male father. God the Son became incarnate in the person of Jesus of Nazareth. He was born of a virgin through the Holy Spirit. God truly became human in Jesus Christ. Catholics believe that Jesus of Nazareth was and is a real human being, not simply a spirit or ghost.
The incarnation of God in Christ is the ultimate act of love, because rather than sending an angel or good human to accomplish the redemption and restoration of creation, God Himself became human. Jesus died on a cross, suffered as humans do, truly died, and was laid in a tomb. Despite what some critics will level against it, the Nicene Creed is more than just metaphysical speculation, and includes important historical confessions. Notice that in addition to being "true God from true God," Jesus is fully human as well. The early Docetists, named from the Greek word "dokeo" "to seem" , heretically believed Jesus only seemed to be human, but was not.
Jesus was resurrected bodily, as the Scriptures say. Just as Jesus truly died, He truly rose from the dead three days later. The bodily resurrection is the keystone of Christian doctrine and experience.
www.cantinesanpancrazio.it/components/socehep/441-leggere-messaggi.php However, Jesus was not just physically resuscitated as was Lazarus , but rather His body was transformed at the Resurrection. Rejection of the bodily resurrection is a rejection of the foundation of Catholic Christianity. The word "again" is used because Jesus' first "rising" was His birth. To "rise again" is be alive again. In ancient science, heaven was thought to be situated above the sky dome.
So in the Scriptures, Jesus is said to ascend to heaven. Whatever happened that day, Luke had to render the event into his own scientific paradigm, so he said Jesus "went up" to heaven. Jesus is coming again to righteously judge the living and dead. His kingdom cannot be destroyed, despite all of humanity's efforts. The creed says Jesus is coming; it does not say when or how, nor does it say to speculate on the date of His return. The Holy Spirit is also called "Lord.
However, most scholars believe that the text of the full creed dates prior to this council, and that the bishops simply gave their approval to a local creed already in use. The reason these additions were included in the Nicene Creed is that some heretics of the 4th century denied the full divinity of the Holy Spirit. The Son is said to be begotten, while the Spirit is said to proceed. Both words convey that the Son and Spirit are in special relationships to the Father, yet also fully divine.
The phrase "and the Son" in Latin, "filioque," was not in the original text of the creed, but was added in many Western Churches in the late 6th century. The addition likely developed over time as a tool against Arianism. There are theological and historical justifications for the addition or exclusion of the filioque. The Eastern Churches oppose the addition of the filioque, while many Western churches accept it. Actually, despite current division on the matter, the issue has been pretty much theologically resolved.
The Catholic Church acknowledges the Father is the sole source within the Trinity, and admits that "proceeds from the Father and the Son" means "proceeds from the Father through the Son. The creed requires belief in the Catholic universal Church, whose origins go back to the Apostles themselves. The Church is "holy" on account of Christ's holiness and grace, and not because its members or leaders are perfect. In fact, at times throughout history, the Church has remained holy in spite of its members. Catholics believe that sacramentally, through the waters of baptism, God forgives us of our sins, and we are born again.
This belief is universally acknowledged in early Christian writings. If someone has been validly baptized in the name of the Trinity, re-baptism is unnecessary. Christians always hope for the end of this fractured system, when the universe is fully reconciled to God in Christ Jesus. The Nicene Creed affirms both the existence of a soul-filled heaven and the later resurrection of the dead when soul meets glorified body. The Nicene Creed is the declaration of the Christian faith for all Catholics and Orthodox as well as many Protestants. The Nicene Creed explains the Church's teachings about the Trinity and affirms historical realities of Jesus' life.
The creed does not directly quote Scripture, but it is based on biblical truths. The Council of Nicaea was the first general council of the Church since the Apostolic Council of Jerusalem, which set conditions for Gentiles to join the Church. Roman persecution of Christians had just ended 12 years earlier, but now the Church was divided over the question of Jesus' divinity. Heretics led by a priest named Arius in Alexandria, Egypt, claimed that if Jesus was begotten by God, He must have had a beginning like every other part of God's creation — therefore, Jesus was not fully God.
The theological dispute threatened the peace of the Roman empire, so Emperor Constantine — at the request of several concerned bishops — called for a meeting of all the Church's bishops in the easily accessible town of Nicaea present-day Iznik, Turkey , organized like the Roman Senate with himself as a non-voting observer. The council met in Senatus Palace which now lies under Lake Iznik.
Among them were Pope St. Silvester, St. Nicholas of Myra, St. Eusebius of Caesarea considered the Church's first historian , St. I cannot grasp the greatness of that One so as to attribute a greater greatness to the rest. When I contemplate the Three together, I see but one torch, and cannot divide or measure out the undivided light. Devotion to the Trinity centered in the French monasteries at Tours and Aniane where Saint Benedict dedicated the abbey church to the Trinity in Feast Days were not instituted until at Cluny and at Canterbury and papal resistance continued until Baptism is generally conferred with the Trinitarian formula , "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit".
Other Trinitarian formulas found in the New Testament include in 2 Corinthians , 1 Corinthians —6, Ephesians —6, 1 Peter and Revelation —5. Those who place great emphasis on the baptisms in Acts often likewise question the authenticity of Matthew in its present form. Most scholars of New Testament textual criticism accept the authenticity of the passage, since there are no variant manuscripts regarding the formula,  and the extant form of the passage is attested in the Didache  and other patristic works of the 1st and 2nd centuries: Ignatius ,  Tertullian ,  Hippolytus ,  Cyprian ,  and Gregory Thaumaturgus.
Commenting on Matthew , Gerhard Kittel states:. This threefold relation [of Father, Son and Spirit] soon found fixed expression in the triadic formulae in 2 Cor. The form is first found in the baptismal formula in Matthew ; Did. In Trinitarian doctrine, God exists as three persons or hypostases, but is one being, having a single divine nature. As stated in the Athanasian Creed , the Father is uncreated, the Son is uncreated, and the Holy Spirit is uncreated, and all three are eternal without beginning. Each person is understood as having the identical essence or nature, not merely similar natures.
According to the Eleventh Council of Toledo "For, when we say: He who is the Father is not the Son, we refer to the distinction of persons; but when we say: the Father is that which the Son is, the Son that which the Father is, and the Holy Spirit that which the Father is and the Son is, this clearly refers to the nature or substance" . The Fourth Lateran Council adds: "In God there is only a Trinity since each of the three persons is that reality — that is to say substance, essence or divine nature. This reality neither begets nor is begotten nor proceeds; the Father begets, the Son is begotten and the holy Spirit proceeds.
Thus there is a distinction of persons but a unity of nature. Although therefore the Father is one person, the Son another person and the holy Spirit another person, they are not different realities, but rather that which is the Father is the Son and the holy Spirit, altogether the same; thus according to the orthodox and catholic faith they are believed to be consubstantial. Perichoresis from Greek , "going around", "envelopment" is a term used by some scholars to describe the relationship among the members of the Trinity.
The Latin equivalent for this term is circumincessio. This concept refers for its basis to John 14—17 , where Jesus is instructing the disciples concerning the meaning of his departure. His going to the Father, he says, is for their sake; so that he might come to them when the "other comforter" is given to them. Then, he says, his disciples will dwell in him, as he dwells in the Father, and the Father dwells in him, and the Father will dwell in them.
This is so, according to the theory of perichoresis , because the persons of the Trinity "reciprocally contain one another, so that one permanently envelopes and is permanently enveloped by, the other whom he yet envelopes". Hilary of Poitiers , Concerning the Trinity Perichoresis effectively excludes the idea that God has parts, but rather is a simple being. It also harmonizes well with the doctrine that the Christian's union with the Son in his humanity brings him into union with one who contains in himself, in the Apostle Paul 's words, "all the fullness of deity" and not a part.
See also: Divinization Christian. Perichoresis provides an intuitive figure of what this might mean. The Son, the eternal Word, is from all eternity the dwelling place of God; he is the "Father's house", just as the Son dwells in the Father and the Spirit; so that, when the Spirit is "given", then it happens as Jesus said, "I will not leave you as orphans; for I will come to you. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church ,. The Fathers of the Church distinguish between theology theologia and economy oikonomia.
Through the oikonomia the theologia is revealed to us; but conversely, the theologia illuminates the whole oikonomia. God's works reveal who he is in himself; the mystery of his inmost being enlightens our understanding of all his works. So it is, analogously, among human persons. A person discloses himself in his actions, and the better we know a person, the better we understand his actions. The whole divine economy is the common work of the three divine persons.
For as the Trinity has only one and the same natures so too does it have only one and the same operation: "The Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit are not three principles of creation but one principle. Thus the Church confesses, following the New Testament, "one God and Father from whom all things are, and one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom all things are, and one Holy Spirit in whom all things are". It is above all the divine missions of the Son's Incarnation and the gift of the Holy Spirit that show forth the properties of the divine persons.
The ancient Nicene theologians argued that everything the Trinity does is done by Father, Son, and Spirit working in unity with one will. The three persons of the Trinity always work inseparably, for their work is always the work of the one God. The Son's will cannot be different from the Father's because it is the Father's.
They have but one will as they have but one being. Otherwise they would not be one God. On this point St. Basil said:. When then He says, 'I have not spoken of myself', and again, 'As the Father said unto me, so I speak', and 'The word which ye hear is not mine, but [the Father's] which sent me', and in another place, 'As the Father gave me commandment, even so I do', it is not because He lacks deliberate purpose or power of initiation, nor yet because He has to wait for the preconcerted key-note, that he employs language of this kind.
His object is to make it plain that His own will is connected in indissoluble union with the Father. Do not then let us understand by what is called a 'commandment' a peremptory mandate delivered by organs of speech, and giving orders to the Son, as to a subordinate, concerning what He ought to do.
Let us rather, in a sense befitting the Godhead, perceive a transmission of will, like the reflexion of an object in a mirror, passing without note of time from Father to Son. According to Thomas Aquinas the Son prayed to the Father, became a minor to the angels, became incarnate, obeyed the Father as to his human nature, as to his divine nature the Son remained God: "Thus, then, the fact that the Father glorifies, raises up, and exalts the Son does not show that the Son is less than the Father, except in His human nature.
For, in the divine nature by which He is equal to the Father, the power of the Father and the Son is the same and their operation is the same. Athanasius of Alexandria explained that the Son is eternally one in being with the Father, temporally and voluntarily subordinate in his incarnate ministry.
Likewise, the Cappadocian Fathers also insisted there was no economic inequality present within the Trinity.
As Basil wrote: "We perceive the operation of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit to be one and the same, in no respect showing differences or variation; from this identity of operation we necessarily infer the unity of nature. The traditional theory of "appropriation" consists in attributing certain names, qualities, or operations to one of the Persons of the Trinity, not, however, to the exclusion of the others, but in preference to the others. This theory was established by the Latin Fathers of the fourth and fifth centuries, especially by Hilary of Poitiers , Augustine , and Leo the Great.
In the Middle Ages, the theory was systematically taught by the Schoolmen such as Bonaventure. Augustine "coupled the doctrine of the Trinity with anthropology. Proceeding from the idea that humans are created by God according to the divine image, he attempted to explain the mystery of the Trinity by uncovering traces of the Trinity in the human personality". In De trinitate — he wrote,. The Bible reveals it although only in the two neighboring verses 1 John ;16 , therefore one must ask if love itself is triune.
Augustine found that it is, and consists of "three: the lover, the beloved, and the love. Reaffirming the theopaschite formula unus de trinitate passus est carne meaning "One of the Trinity suffered in the flesh" ,  Thomas Aquinas wrote that Jesus suffered and died as to his human nature, as to his divine nature he could not suffer or die.
For it says in 1 Peter : "Christ having suffered in the flesh" For, in the divine nature by which He is equal to the Father. In the s the recovery of a substantially different formula of theopaschism took place: at least unus de Trinitate passus est meaning " The underlying question is if the three Persons of the Trinity can live a self-love amor sui , as well as if for them, with the conciliar dogmatic formulation in terms that today we would call ontotheological , it is possible that the aseity causa sui is valid.
Benjamin B. Warfield saw a principle of subordination in the "modes of operation" of the Trinity, but was also hesitant to ascribe the same to the "modes of subsistence" in relation of one to another. While noting that it is natural to see a subordination in function as reflecting a similar subordination in substance, he suggests that this might be the result of " According to Eusebius, Constantine suggested the term homoousios at the Council of Nicaea, though most scholars have doubted that Constantine had such knowledge and have thought that most likely Hosius had suggested the term to him.
Trinitarian formulas found in the New Testament include Matthew , 2 Corinthians , 1 Corinthians , Ephesians , 1 Peter and Revelation Eventually, the diverse references to God, Jesus, and the Spirit found in the New Testament were brought together to form the doctrine of the Trinity—one God subsisting in three persons and one substance.
The doctrine of the Trinity was used to oppose alternative views of how the three are related and to defend the church against charges of worshiping two or three gods. The Comma Johanneum , 1 John , is a disputed text which states: "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.
In the letters of Paul, the public, corporate devotional patterns towards Jesus in the early Christian community are reflective of Paul's perspective on the divine status of Jesus in what scholars have termed a "binitarian" pattern of devotion. For Paul, Jesus receives prayer 1 Cor. The term can also refer to the religious act of devotion towards a deity.
The Gospel of John has been seen as especially aimed at emphasizing Jesus' divinity, presenting Jesus as the Logos , pre-existent and divine, from its first words: " In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. Some have suggested that John presents a hierarchy [ citation needed ] when he quotes Jesus as saying, "The Father is greater than I",  a statement which was appealed to by nontrinitarian groups such as Arianism.
Prior Jewish theology held that the Spirit is merely the divine presence of God himself,  whereas orthodox Christian theology holds that the Holy Spirit is a distinct person of God himself.
This development begins early in the New Testament, as the Spirit of God receives much more emphasis and description comparably than it had in earlier Jewish writing. Whereas there are 75 references to the Spirit within the Old Testament and 35 identified in the non-biblical Dead Sea Scrolls , the New Testament, despite its significantly shorter length, mentions the Spirit times. In addition to its larger emphasis and importance placed on the Spirit in the New Testament, the Spirit is also described in much more personalized and individualized terms than earlier.
Moreover, the New Testament references often portray actions that seem to give the Spirit an intensely personal quality, probably more so than in Old Testament or ancient Jewish texts. To cite other examples of this, in Acts the Spirit alerts Peter to the arrival of visitors from Cornelius , directs the church in Antioch to send forth Barnabas and Saul —4 , guides the Jerusalem council to a decision about Gentile converts , at one point forbids Paul to missionize in Asia , and at another point warns Paul via prophetic oracles of trouble ahead in Jerusalem In the New Testament, the Spirit is not a recipient of devotion or worship as can be found in the Nicene Creed , though there are aspects of the New Testament which describe the Spirit as the subject of religious ritual in Matthew and 2 Corinthians As the Arian controversy was dissipating, the debate moved from the deity of Jesus Christ to the equality of the Holy Spirit with the Father and Son.
On one hand, the Pneumatomachi sect declared that the Holy Spirit was an inferior person to the Father and Son. On the other hand, the Cappadocian Fathers argued that the Holy Spirit was equal to the Father and Son in nature or substance. Although the main text used in defense of the deity of the Holy Spirit was Matthew , Cappadocian Fathers such as Basil the Great argued from other verses such as "But Peter said, 'Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and to keep back for yourself part of the proceeds of the land?
While it remained unsold, did it not remain your own? And after it was sold, was it not at your disposal? Why is it that you have contrived this deed in your heart? You have not lied to men but to God. Another passage the Cappadocian Fathers quoted from was "By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of his mouth all their host.
And since, according to them,  because only the holy God can create holy beings such as the angels, the Son and Holy Spirit must be God. Yet another argument from the Cappadocian Fathers to prove that the Holy Spirit is of the same nature as the Father and Son comes from "For who knows a person's thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. They also combined "the servant does not know what his master is doing" [John ] with 1 Corinthians in an attempt to show that the Holy Spirit is not the slave of God, and therefore his equal.
The Pneumatomachi contradicted the Cappadocian Fathers by quoting, "Are they not all ministering spirits sent out to serve for the sake of those who are to inherit salvation? In addition, the Old Testament has also been interpreted as foreshadowing the Trinity, by referring to God's word, [Ps ] his spirit, [Isa ] and Wisdom, [Prov ] as well as narratives such as the appearance of the three men to Abraham.
Some Church Fathers believed that a knowledge of the mystery was granted to the prophets and saints of the Old Testament, and that they identified the divine messenger of Genesis , , , Exodus and Wisdom of the sapiential books with the Son, and "the spirit of the Lord" with the Holy Spirit. Genesis 18—19 has been interpreted by Christians as a Trinitarian text. The narrative has the Lord appearing to Abraham, who was visited by three men.
Justin Martyr , and John Calvin similarly, interpreted it such that Abraham was visited by God, who was accompanied by two angels. Justin appropriated the God who visited Abraham to Jesus, the second person of the Trinity. Augustine, in contrast, held that the three visitors to Abraham were the three persons of the Trinity.
Then in Genesis 19 , two of the visitors were addressed by Lot in the singular: "Lot said to them, 'Not so, my lord. Some Christians interpret the theophanies or appearances of the Angel of the Lord as revelations of a person distinct from God, who is nonetheless called God.
This interpretation is found in Christianity as early as Justin Martyr and Melito of Sardis , and reflects ideas that were already present in Philo. The Trinity is most commonly seen in Christian art with the Spirit represented by a dove, as specified in the Gospel accounts of the Baptism of Christ ; he is nearly always shown with wings outspread. However depictions using three human figures appear occasionally in most periods of art.
The Father and the Son are usually differentiated by age, and later by dress, but this too is not always the case. The usual depiction of the Father as an older man with a white beard may derive from the biblical Ancient of Days , which is often cited in defense of this sometimes controversial representation. However, in Eastern Orthodoxy the Ancient of Days is usually understood to be God the Son, not God the Father see below —early Byzantine images show Christ as the Ancient of Days,  but this iconography became rare.
When the Father is depicted in art, he is sometimes shown with a halo shaped like an equilateral triangle , instead of a circle. The Son is often shown at the Father's right hand. In early medieval art, the Father may be represented by a hand appearing from a cloud in a blessing gesture, for example in scenes of the Baptism of Christ.
The basic tenets and practices of Catholicism spring from the assertion The Supreme Being is the creator, called God or God the Father, who. In order to reveal himself to men, in the condescension of his goodness God are in every way like human language, just as the Word of the eternal Father, Through all the words of Sacred Scripture, God speaks only one single.
This subject continued to be popular until the 18th century at least. By the end of the 15th century, larger representations, other than the Throne of Mercy, became effectively standardised, showing an older figure in plain robes for the Father, Christ with his torso partly bare to display the wounds of his Passion , and the dove above or around them. In earlier representations both Father, especially, and Son often wear elaborate robes and crowns.
Sometimes the Father alone wears a crown, or even a papal tiara. In the later part of the Christian Era , in Renaissance European iconography, the Eye of Providence began to be used as an explicit image of the Christian Trinity and associated with the concept of Divine Providence. Seventeenth-century depictions of the Eye of Providence sometimes show it surrounded by clouds or sunbursts. God the Father top , and the Holy Spirit represented by a dove depicted above Jesus. Painting by Francesco Albani d.
Atypical depiction. A Christian version of the Eye of Providence, emphasizing the triangle representing the Trinity. Nontrinitarianism or antitrinitarianism refers to Christian belief systems that reject the doctrine of the Trinity as found in the Nicene Creed as not having a scriptural origin. Nontrinitarian views differ widely on the nature of God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit. Various nontrinitarian views, such as Adoptionism , Monarchianism , and Arianism existed prior to the formal definition of the Trinity doctrine in AD , , and , at the Councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, and Ephesus, respectively.
When the Franks converted to Catholicism in , however, it gradually faded out. Also binitarianism. Islam considers Jesus to be a prophet , but not divine,  and Allah to be absolutely indivisible a concept known as tawhid. They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! God is the Messiah, son of Mary. His abode is the Fire. For evil-doers there will be no helpers. God is the third of three; when there is no Lord save the One Lord. If they desist not from so saying a painful doom will fall on those of them who disbelieve.
Will they not rather turn unto God and seek forgiveness of Him? For God is Forgiving, Merciful. The Messiah, son of Mary, was no other than a messenger, messengers the like of whom had passed away before him. And his mother was a saintly woman. And they both used to eat earthly food. See how We make the revelations clear for them, and see how they are turned away! Quran Interpretation of these verses by modern scholars has been varied.
Verse has been interpreted as a potential criticism of Syriac literature that references Jesus as "the third of three" and thus an attack on the view that Christ was divine. The existence of this group and their presence in Arabia in the Islamic period is not clear. Judaism traditionally maintains a tradition of monotheism to the exclusion of the possibility of a Trinity. The idea of God as a duality or trinity is heretical — it is even considered by some to be polytheistic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the album, see Father, Son, Holy Ghost album. For other uses, see Holy Trinity disambiguation , Trinitarian disambiguation , and Trinity disambiguation. Christian doctrine that God is one God, but three coeternal consubstantial persons. General conceptions. Specific conceptions.