Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity and Culture

Ethnicity and Race: Anthropology
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Darwin advocated 'survival of the fittest' led to war, conquest, s u b j u b the dynamic nature of biological change, moving away colonialism and imperialism. However, the eugeni 1. Chapter 6 'Race', ethnicity and nationalism movementof the early twentieth century, alongside the within the social sciences across a range of concepts and post Nazi experience, proved to be the death knell social divisions, such as gender and class Payne Often, you find that key terms of reference work together, such as 'ethnic minority', or such terms Monogenist and polygenist debates continue to can be used interchangeably, such as 'race'lethnicity.

This is increasingly being out more about the following topics and issues, all problematized as 'the racialisation of Whiteness', relevant examples of how the monogenisUpolygenist whereby authors such as Mac an Ghaill and debates continue to play out: Bonnett wish to take apart the idea of 'whiteness' ,the 'G' factor Chris Brand, Arthur Jensen and and subject it to the same critical scrutiny that has been applied to 'blackness' over the years. Despite the post-war public disgrace of scientific racism.

However, as we indicated earlier, although the term 'race' itself might still be in use, the vast majority Moving on from defining the key terms of reference of social scientists are more interested in racism as an and examining some of the historical theories on experience rather than 'race' as a concept , and in origins, we need to determine the main conceptual studying the perception of others that 'race' might be issues and theoretical debates in this general field of real.

This shift can arguably be traced back to the study. As sociologists, we have to explore some of the s when sociology as a discipline was undergoing I dilemmas, contradictions, tensions and areas of controversy, and try to evaluate the relative worth of these ideas and examine the bearing they have on 'the something of a radical transformation, not least because of a rebirth of Marxism as an explanatory tool for understanding changes in wider society.

Marxist I real world' for example, the way, at times, in which scholars argued that to treat 'race' as a concept was to abstract ideas can bear influence on legal systems, policy give it ideological meaning and legitimacy - entirely and politics. With regard to ethnic and racial studies, the wrong approach. Such 'fixed' divisions between it is clear that different terms mean different things to supposed different 'races', Mamists argued, were not different people.

This is one reason why we now see a Barth ; Jenkins Its growth in i m p o r t a q contemporary focus o n racism and its many forms, is attributable to the post-war redundancy o f 'race" whether individual, group o r institutional. This leaves an explanatory concept within both the natural sc us with a conceptual lacuna a gap in which something and social sciences. Ethnicity refers generally to the perception o f group fact that only certain physical characteristics difference and so t o social boundaries between signified to define 'races' in specific circumstanxi sections o f the population.

In this sense ethnic indicates that we are investigating n o t a given, difference is the recognition o f a contrast between natural division o f the world's population, but 'US' and 'them'. By studying the physiological differences of these Haddon, challenged the increasingly popular racist groups and identifying their intellectual, psychological ideologies of the day in a book entitled We Europeans. However, the idea of many parts of the world it is not physical but cultural racial difference has survived and is often confused with differences that are seen as significant.

In regions such the concept of ethnicity. As Hazel Croall has pointed out, 'Social relationships become racialised when racial as Central and Eastern Europe where the blacwwhite dichotomy is not in evidence, it is ethnic group WM differences are assumed to be significant' Croall membership that is more important as a mark of If cultural badges of difference are mistaken for difference, although racial terminology is still often used biological ones, we may simply end up with what and many ethnic groups are talked of as if they are racial Martin Barker has labelled the 'new racism'.

In all cases it was not obvious 'racial' ce the Middle Ages, the attitudes and actions of a characteristics that inspired conflict and persecution but -based peasantry towards the nomadic Romani have cultural differences; the closer the physical resemblance ys been hostile. In the nineteenth century Cesar between groups, the more violent the response to ethnic mbroso argued that Gypsies were innately criminal division: muse they were 'so low morally and so incapable of Nationalism is most violent where the group you are 1tural and intellectual development', and even under defining yourself against most closely resembles you.

Since Cain and Abel, we have ntified as outsiders: known that hatred between brothers is more In the vision that prevails in Central and Eastern ferocious than hatred between strangers. This implies that the Roma are not an ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia: authentic people. Kohn A Croat, thus, is someone who is not a Serb.

A Serb is someone who is not a Croat. Without hatred of t k In a pogrom in the Romanian village of other, there would be no clearly defined national self areni demonstrated how powerful such beliefs can to worship and adore. Following the 1. In your own words, describe the difference between ncident, a local resident said: the concepts of 'race' and 'ethnic group'. We're proud of what we did. We did not commit 2. What evidence is provided in the work of Kohn and murder.

How could you call killing Gypsies murder? They are based upon ethnic group membership? They are criminals, sub-human, vermin. And they are certainly not 3. Why do you think the Roma are a target for wanted here. Kohn 4. This is made equally evident by historical evidence that records that certain populations have Stop and think been categorised as different 'races' at different historical times and in diierent places.

Thus, the use Questions of ethnicity and ethnic identity are not of the word 'race' to label groups so distinguished by just a sociological or abstract theoretical exercise. In , the issue of Miles and Brown 89; our italics ethnicity was given definitive consideration by the House of Lords in the Mandla v.

Ethnicity - Sociology - Chegg Tutors

Dowel1 Lee case In his analysis, Lord Fraser argued that there wer What makes ethnicity so attractive? Some of these characteristics , defined and labelled as individuals belonging to wider are essential; others are not essential but one 'ethnic' groups Fenton A constant feature across or more of them will commonly be found and - various theoretical positions advancing the causes and will help to distinguish the group from the meanings of ethnicity is a reliance on the 'stuff' of surrounding community.

The conditions which. These did not manners, often but not necessarily associated ' just 'disappear'. These differences could be based on any with religious observance. In addition to those one of a whole range of characteristics within what we two essential characteristics the following might call 'cultural' - nationality, language, religion, characteristics are, in my opinion, relevant: perceived racial background and so on - and usually 3 either a common geographical origin, or they were based on a complex combination or fusion of descent from a small number of common all of them.

In particular, there was a need to analyse ancestors; 4 a common language, not the tensions and advantages and disadvantages that necessarily peculiar to the group; 5 a common seemed to be almost inevitably associated with these literature peculiar to the group; 6 a common differences.

Thus, with 'race' deemed inappropriate to religion different from that of neighbouring explain these tensions, 'ethnicity' filled an analytical -gmopmrfromI I w e g e n i a l o E m i i t y gap. This is an extreme view, but one with some the Norman conquest and their conquerors support. What we can say is that, in Britain, 'ethnicity' might both be ethnic groups. Dowell Lee [jl although the difference between legalistic and academic 1 All ER definitions is more a question of emphasis than of essence. Th Fraser mentions.

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If you were asked to rank in terms of their importance, what order is this: boundaries establish and help regulate relationships b e w e n different groups, whether perceived. In point of fact, it is primarily much do with internal or rinsiderkoherence of a disti le 'choose' or 'wear' their ethnicity, and ethnic identity.

That is, in knowing what we does this impad on their relations with we know what and who we are. In other words, in the sociology of eve 03, David Beckham was named as tend to draw on strengths that we h or relegate our perceived weaknesses. Th various identities that we take on. When it coma ethnicity, its flexibility and management can be impressionisdc, and it can be situational as well relational.

In other words, sociology sees ethnic categories azld identities as open to change ra being fixed. In a Western European sense, 'ethn or 'ethnic' is often used as a codeword or syno :difference" but for some people, 'difference' or can equate to 'not British", neatiy avoiding the of whether 'Britishness' itself has an uncontest existence. If so, what elements would be inclub loring ethnic identity this cultural mix? This is a useful exercise as it r; wider questions regarding the extent to which question of identity has received extensive. In such ways, the ste identities and that these axebsocialryconstructed.

In the cultural worlds of It is evident that there are some 'ethnic' identities that music, the arts, business and sports, such id we are Born into', while others we learn or acquire. It is useful here to look at the on 'difference" and 'diversity' and trying to theoretical connections between culture an.

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Barth edited a collection of identity. We will look at the This is not to suggest that such prejudice, main findings of this study in more depth later on in discrimination and violence did not occur this chapter. The report was, at the time, the most -but rather to argue that such positions a influential and comprehensive overview of Britain's were one of many. It does not help to pres ethnic minorities in terms of their socioeconomic and selective or exaggerated vision - this has a political standing.

The subheading for this survey report danger, in that any sense of minority eth was most telling: for the first time the PSI started to is seen as removed or is rendered hopeless. In other example, think of the campaign by the La words, the PSI and the authors recognized that diversity after the racist murder of their son Step between different minority groups is as important as well as generational differences and cha differences from the majority white population.

It is that allow for more public articulation of also worth noting, as an aside, that not even this comprehensive report was complete in telling the story of Britain's ethnic minorities: nowhere in its pages did it mention the Gypsy and Traveller population of Britain, Stop and think some ,, citizens. Indeed, there are other tensions as well -we can look at the 'shared experience' With regard to changing identitie of racism across all minority groups, but at the same Woods was asked on the Oprah time it is important to acknowledge the fact that April whether it bothered him that different groups experience racism, and feel its impact, described him as 'African-American'.

He in many different ways as it in turn intersects with that it did; he went on to say: 'G complex questions of class, gender, age and sexuality, up with this name. I'm a "Cablinasian". It should be self-ascription of his own ethnicity, a po noted that in much of the ethnic and racial studies refleots the fact that he is one-quarter Ch literature, especially more recent texts and articles, one-quarter Thai, one-quarter African-A reference is often made to ethnicity not only in abstract one-eighth Native American and one-eig terms of 'culture and identity' e.

It is worth noting that issues such as citizenship, social exclusion and poverty reaction from some sections of America's e. Platt ; Woodward In other words, the African-American community to Tiger ap construction of identity draws on many resources - being 'bothered' when called African-Am physical, positional, cultural and economic - all of was not positive, and his assertion of a which influence what we might regard as 'lifestyle' identity was regarded as being something choices; for example, Tiger Woods will probably have a 'sell-out'.

Could trailer park and flipping burgers at McDonald's for a all apply such convoluted understandi living. The extent to which social theories present ethnicity as being socially b e d by circumstances has b Is an ethnic label such as 'Cablinasian' been criticized, and their limits have been tested by ultimate example of a hybrid identity? Certainly in the UK context between culture? This has, in fact, become an increasing part lexity and sensitivity that can arise when of the Language of sociology in relation to what might to define yourself as x or y ethnicity, especially be thought of as 'pick and mix ethnicity'.

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It might be infused with other letters to become a plural argued that, with the impact of posts radical n a singular ethnicity. Yet this is increasingly sociology, and, more latterly, globalization, all things as, for example, second and third generations identity are, in a sense, 'up for grabs' and as part of a ity ethnic groups come to grapple with new cultural shift we are witnessing more fluid approaches ns of self, such as 'Scottish Asian', 'Anglo- to how we define ourselves in relation to others, vis-a- 'Black British' and so on.

What is important vis ethnic identity. Within postmodern schools of ch new identities are not in and of themselves thought, this is often talked about as multidimensional or 'diluted' in comparison with first-generation or provisional identities and ethnicities; there is a ut rather are different and are constructed discontinuity with the past to embrace a new, less ore options than were previously available.

Such restrictive future. Of course, it is useful to wonder what e now a central part of the kind of 'identity prompted this shift or, rather, whether this is just that authors such as Stuart Hall have 'natural' social change. I Pase study rn than one race or of 'no race' in the most recent t black, forget white. As blacks and Asians move away from colour-based, labels, observers say that white youngsters are moving towards traditional black lifestyles, creating the new 'blended' youth.

They regard themselves as 'Black urban culture has become the mainstream eration Ethnically Ambiguous. While many blacks culture,' says journalist and social commentator Paul Asians are casting aside the old ethnic labels as McKenzie. As up on the rise of Generation EA have been media Khan, a nurse from Camberwell, explains: and entertainment groups. This can clearly be seen ng to define people by the old race labels just in the casting of mixed race movie stars and the 't work any more.

Look around you. Can you 'racially-indeterminate, melting pot aesthetic' hole these people? To me, that doesn't characterizing the catwalks of the fashion world. Even and the UK Diddy or 50 Cent. Ambiguity sells, marketing experts say, not only catch up with real life and work out how to because it - helpfully - covers all bases but because things even further forward.

Is Genera London-based trend analyst and researcher who has EA a reality? In the multiracial, pluralist cult worked for Levi's and Coca-Cola. It's about art imitating life. US academic Evelyn to party with his friends, says: 'People don't make a Mammond, a professor of the history of science and distinction now because the distinction is dissolving - Afro-American studies at Harvard, recently told the culturally and even at times physically. New York Times that race was an 'invented concept' 'We are the new mix. We are the remi used 'to categorize perceived biological, social and generation.

Using contemporary Britain as an exampl Commission for Racial Equality, Trevor Phillips evidence is there to support or refute Lea agrees: 'The CRE is not just here to go about of a 'remix generation'? From theory to the 'real in general terms, the social world is quicker social theory; social theory reacts to rather world' 'real life'.

There are many contradicti in ethnic and racial studies struggle with Theory moves on, reflecting changes in the 'real world', address. One of the more fundame and at least two main approaches challenge modernist is that on the one hand there is increasing and structuralist viewpoints. First, feminism has mobility among minority ethnic gro helped us to understand the category of 'women' as against their supposed 'victimology' but o problematic and has challenged essentialist positions other hand there is evidence of continued on both gender and ethnicity, especially the work of inequality and differential treatment bas authors such as Anthias and Yuval-Davies For postmodernists, however, the The focus should be one of extent and impact of racial discrimination to the eater choice, style and diversity, with the exdusion of most other factors encourages a 'difference' as a key goal.

However, the perspective in which West Indians, Pakistanis, om and choice are problematic in a society Indians etc, come to be viewed unidimensionally as urces are not equally distributed; some the objects of other people's beliefs and behaviour. Miles 65 ensions here to both public and private where equality is formally supported, Although now over a decade old, the fourth national in the guise of a multicultural society.

The survey of ethnic minorities conducted by the PSI in emma, perhaps, is how we 'judge' or measure London in is still an important source of data on -there is a need to look at solid empirical data the ethnic minority experience of inequality and social to give the theory and concepts some meaning. The fourth Bangladeshis, Chinese and Pakistanis h a w survey took on new issues that had been negledd in.

In terms of owner-o the previous surveys, such as cultural identity, racial Indians, African hian8 and Pakistanis eontia harassment, health and health services. As the report African Asians. A signifiwt finding hen more than four out of he. Name any p u p whose poverty rtuses national language. In other words, n Britain, with Indians, African Asians and minority ethnic communites can have strong having similar levels of health to whites, associational identities even without direct participation bbeans, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis having in distinctive cultural practices for example, practising th than whites.

However, the chapter on religion or wearing particular clothing. In terms of ns us of the danger of 'crude stereotyped 'Britishness', the team asked the sample what they tions' Modood et al. Indeed, it is further noted that important Less than two-thirds of the sample agreed with are 'missed' if several minority ethnic groups this statement, with African Asians agreeing the most together as if they were one homogeneous and Bangladeshis agreeing the least.

Overall, the research team for the fourth PSI survey b regard to racial violence and harassment, concluded that during the s all the evidence oncluded by noting the 'difference and indicates that Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are experience across and between ethnic 'consistently at a disadvantage' when compared and groups. For example, similar numbers of white contrasted with the white experience of life in Britain d South Asian people reported being attacked, across many indicators, such as employment, income, ignificantly higher proportions of Caribbeans health and housing Modood et aL People ficantly lower number of Chinese were from Caribbean and Indian origins are more often than o physical attacks.

For reported property not found to experience disadvantage in Britain, the survey discovered that, apart from although their circumstances are less serious when shis, one in seven of all ethnic groups compared with the situation of Pakistanis and white people reported having had their Bangladeshis. Caribbean and Indian people are said by amaged in the past 12 months Modood et al.

Regarding racial harassment, meaning racial indicators. Finally, the survey found that Chinese and d insulting behaviour, 13 per cent of the African Asian people are showing signs of 'upward ported suffering from this form of abuse, with social mobility' and they are in 'broad parity' with the ns, African Asians, Pakistanis and Chinese white populatian; the research team suggests that it is g higher numbers of incidents than, for not appropriate to describe such groups as Indians and Bangladeshis.

If the sample is 'disadvantaged'. Importantly, in his concluding ted, this would mean that about one-quarter thoughts, Tariq Modood argues, on people were subjected to some form of equality and social cohesion cannot be built upon ssment in a month period Modood et al. The rights and responsibilities a common notion and n, like the rest of the survey, is a quantitative something also pushed heavily by New Labour since examines some aspects and components of their election in New multicultural forms of and ethnic identity, for example self-description citizenship are required, forms that are aware of ethnic tification, religion, marriage, clothing and difference and yet are held together under common Britishness'.

Although noting the many ideas of 'Britishness'. This is the challenge that we are nces across and between different ethnic minority still addressing today, and it is hoped that, when a fifth on these issues, the report rather boldly declares survey is commissioned by the PSI, its findings will new form' of ethnic identity has emerged in reflect increasing levels of social cohesion and social q. One of the most significant findings here is that justice across all ethnic groups in Britain.

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Research shows that unreasonable to suppose thaO which some ethnic groups do well by racial one part of the explanation C in education notably Indians and disadvantage is declining and the role of equal opportunities Chinese while others Bangladeshi the circumstances Of the policies in breaking down women and Afro-Caribbean men minority groups are diverging. These differential trends Some groups are poorly placed disadvantage. The British I are reflected in patterns of employment. In a report on employment prospects in , in educational and occupational hierarchies, others have overtaken the white population experience has been that and administrative measure , voluntary policies, and the he concluded: in the acquisition of pressure on organisations RQarr qualifications, in business the collective actions of wobbrs Overall, there are both positive ownership and in entry to some have all been necessary to M n g and negative elements within prestigious professions, though about progress in the proc the British experience.

This employment. You might think k The orthodoxy is that i t is a virus left over f r o m an history classes and remember seeing pictures o f older more vicious age, which, as if mutating itself slaves o n plantations or Jews, Slavs and Gypsies in against a l l known antidotes, comes back t o wreak its Nazi concentration camps. O r you might pick up r havoc o n hapless victims. Centres o f power employ newspaper and see pictures o f neo-Nazi skinhead the common-sense that they are patriotic while their demonstrators in Russia o r far-right political l e d enemies are nationalistic.

It o power while denying its existence. When you think David McCrone vii-viii this word, what does it say t o you? You might think of far-off places, certain areas 'anti-fascism' and 'Mandela'. Clearly, nationalism e world, such as the Balkans or Rwanda, territories means different things to different people, and these ave seen so much destruction and suffering in the meanings are relative to time and place.

So, how do of 'national' or ethnic-based causes. Similarly, we define nationalism? What and former Soviet Union - again, countries and areas whose criteria should be used? Is nation bound up with global map that have seen conflict and wars in aspects of identity and culture, in addition to elements name of redrawing maps and pushing the rights of of history, myths, memory and language? Or is it more oup of people over another.

You might not have to do with maps, borders and ancient and t of a territory at all: you might have thought of contemporary struggles over territory? In Scotland, you might the state. For example, how have different authors in the field viewed such matters? For Ernest Gellner, 'Nationalism is primarily a political principle, which ve thought of Alex Salmond and the Scottish holds that the political and the national unit should be ational Party, or the Australian actor Me1 Gibson congruent', while for Guiseppe Mazzini, 'Every nation a g the part of William Wallace in the Hollywood state - only one state for each nation.

The point is, nationalism often evokes rrific images of racialized or religious violence, lnic cleansing, the Holocaust, genocide, political Max Weber has talked about the state as 'a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a given territory. And this is a key terrain Ernest Renan, in , wrote a famous paper entitled ,r classic sociology: how do nationalist beliefs 'Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?

The cultures it claims to IifTerences in nationalist thinking across different defend and revive are often its own inventions, or are ountries? In point of fact, what seems crucial to modified out of all recognition. It is Jationalism can tell us much about some of the big important to get this distinction and relationship in luestions in sociology and politics, such as minority-state order.

The state offers power and authority over a place elations, democracy, human rights, citizenship and more. The nation has a collective identity with relations lefinitions of nationalism between people who have connections over time and place. However, it is useful to bear in mind that there 'here have always been two contrasting sides to are such entities as stateless nations such as the Roma mages of nationalism: one of prejudice and intolerance, in Europe and multinational states such as great there you think of words such as 'reactionary', empires of years past.

Part 2 Introduction to social divisions I So, what is this thing called nationalism? On one uncertainty.

General Anthropology

We can see this across the globe of conflicts. Nationalism is called upon, co 1 level it is an ideology that imagines community in a national way, foregrounding and preferring this reproduced from generation to generation I collective identity over other forms. It appears to always any sense of this, we argue that we need to fo seek power in its name - a state for the nation, as the political and contested nature of identity Mazzini put it. Nationalism is active, and it sustains and culture as it relates to nationalism, so often nurtures national identity; this identity appears to be neutral in certain forms and processes.

These open and fluid and can be more cultural than political. When looking around the glo as members of that nation; but this is not to deny the evident that national identities are created t I' attraction of other competing identities for example, we might call nationalist 'imaginings', and our religious, sexual, gendered or ethnic identities.

These imaginings can be There is a psychological element here, whereby positive and negative or, indeed, progressi nationalism becomes a means through which groups indigenous movements fighting against colon and group membership can take form. This national and reactionary the Nazi period in German 'membership' can be about searching for a collective Nationalism can, of course, be positive, and identity, and it is one way in which humans can socially seen as offering solutions to problems of iden organize themselves to help make sense of the world, as capitalism.

Although there are connections social psychologists Reicher and Hopkins have nationalism and democracy, we need to qu argued. Nationalism has its beginnings in the nineteenth century, where we can see ideas of nation and Theorizing nationalism nationhood taking academic shape, along with the When it comes to theorizing nationalism, the political and social thought that fostered a way of seeing range of positions that need to be examined: nationalism that was both positive and critical.

More Primordialism - Prirnordialists argue that recent writing has drawn on these nineteenth-century nationalism has deep roots with ancient traditions and models and is largely accepting of the historical depth. Nationalism is see suggestion that the nation and national identity are and 'essential', a key ingredient for hum inherent to human society. Here we need to look at organization and interaction. Romantic ongoing academic debates between two crucial as Herder rejected the Enlightenm positions: primordialists e. Llobera and rationality and science and talked of each modernists e.

Anderson How do these having a soul with its own peculiar Vol positions see the origins of nationalism? We shall 3 1. A revisiting of such an appro explore these positions, but what we can say with found in the work of Adrian Has certainty is that, despite all the debates and controversy, what he terms The Construction of Nation each sees a future where nations are inevitable and here to stay, whatever globalization may throw at nation. Questioning nationalism no natural or spiritual roots b As critical social scientists, we need to look behind the headlines and many of the assumptions within the from the late eighteenth century.

In Ma literature. How, for example, have nations become seen Nationalism, Ernest Gellner argues as 'natural' and inevitable when we question so much shift from agrarian to industrial socie else in human life and societies? Nationalism is often predatory and instrumentalist: national identity does industrialization process cal get used by nationalism in times of conflict and nationalist sentiments.

As the oppression. She argues that women often suffer the e implies, this theory suggests a continuous most in nationalist conflicts, where rape is often used e for nationalism. In Nazi Germany ent. Whether the origins of nationhood are Postmodernists are quick to point out the tensions ordial or relatively recent creations, they are and ambivalence within nationalist projects, focusing sented by aspects of culture that carry national on those at the margins and boundaries. In Nation and Navation, Homi K. Bhabha a talks of the nism - As with theories on 'race' and ethnicity, 'counter-narratives' of nationalism and 'resistance' to nalist academic work has also felt an impact such projects.

Such an approach suggests that there the work of feminist positions on nationalism. Bhabha asks important I the flowers we buy, the food we a thing that cannot be changed or b o w 'natural' are cook, the buildings we visit and altered ; an example of this can be elings of national work in and the anthems we sing. Are elements of such true that the power of socialization ntities as English, French, can be overstressed at times: Questions :ottish or Belgian 'naturally' 'flagging'can rather fixed, 1.

In his book Banal It is true that political elites seek to nalism, Michael Billig use nationalism and patriotism for 2. Under what circumstances do s that we need not only to their own ends and that the mass you feel national prideishame? Do you regard these feelings as als of nationalism but also to see Chapter , but people are 'natural'?

Ethnicity and Race: Anthropology

Part 2 Introduction to social divisions questions about who really speaks in the name of the part of - do we internalize some imposed identi 'nation' and how 'nationness' is evoked. As a result, A lot of identity is about categorization, and incl his work destabilizes the idea that countries can be when applied to national identities and national regarded as homogeneous entities with shared II identities and cultures.

All senses of nationhood are The nationalist project 'narrativized', meaning that they are created through the telling and retelling of stories and have no reality It is apparent that successful national projects n other than this. In other words, 'nations, like solid foundations; they cannot be situated in sh narratives, lose their origins in the myths of time and sand. Like Benedict Anderson in such elements fear can take over.

In the work of Imagined Communities, Bhabha and his co-authors such as Erich Fromm , this fear stems suggest that we need to view nationalism not as some collapse of the medieval social order in which - natural entity or the outward representation of a individuals had a clear idea of who they were and political ideology but as part of a large and evolving they stood in relation to one another. The system cultural system. How do they interact replaced it Fromm argues that we confront our m- : with one another?

The past three decades or so have found freedoms as a curse rather than a blessin I. Who exactly constitutes of narcissism', as it gives comfort to those d i s t u r w lat 'us' insiders and who constitutes 'them' outsiders , displaced by modernity and late capitalism. Th and why are such categories viewed as being 'national'? In such ti-? When it comes to the matter that Benedict h d e r s o n dwells on a construction of national identities, it is prudent to ask whether these constructions occur from within deal.

Y 1 or whether they are, to some extent, imposed. For example, the flag of St culture sit beside nationalism George has often been associated with British fascism, r Anthony Smith , in signifying racial exclusion, but more recently it has been and Modernism, beliefs and culture are very reclaimed as a simple expression of support for the in constructing ethnic and then national England football and rugby teams. As we have seen, racial categories have B ized world? For primordialists, cultural been central to the development of nationalisms, and nuities are important, with blood and descent, throughout the nineteenth century scientific racism wmple, forming the backbone of cultural ties.

For facilitated the spread of nationalist movements in ists and ethno-symbolists, culture is important Hungary, as mentioned on p. It is also apparent that certain came from. Here, again, Smith raises interesting groups of immigrants have been racialized and that the s regarding the subject of ethnie and ethnic roots. Is this right? With the shift to 'ethnicity' in the ethnic roots are missing, fragmented, forgotten twentieth century, we have seen that national identity reinvented? What about the role of language has often been constructed as having an 'ethnic base', as d the development of the vernacular Hastings has been well documented in Michael Ignatieff's Such questions are at the heart of the national brilliant book Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the rise in relation to questions of culture and New Nationalism.

For example, there is the notion of ate how slippery this connection can be. For Benedict Anderson 1 , in Imagined nitks, it is more about the development of mass and the flourishing of print-capitalism: the. As early proponents of 'mass MacKenzie, made some comments on the BBCl on' were aware, literacy was a key means of programme Question Time regarding Scotland g social values, including notions of and Scots - in particular, he suggested that Scots V. In other words, there are cultural 'needs' for like spending money but not creating it and that, alism to 'work' effectively.

For postmodernists if it weren't for London, Scotland would be a as Bhabha a , it is pretty much all about third-world nation. Below is a quote from the :some postmodernists seem to talk about show: else! Nationalism is principally about on' and the way in which 'stories' are told to [Gordon] Brown is a Scot. He is a socialist equip and sustain the nation. Importantly, we Scot who wants to spend every single penny be aware of not reifymg a 'common culture' you earn, never forget that.

Scotland eing critical to exactly how common such a believes not in entrepreneurialism like London on culture' may actually be. Indeed, culture is and the south east. The reality is that the Scots enjoy spending it, they don't enjoy rhetoric although, it does beg the quetstio creating it which is the opposite of down in the past we are speaking of m d how this has south.

There's no doubt that if it weren't for London and the South East, Scotland might well be heading towards being a third world either, nation now. Kelvin MacKenzie The reaction from various people included the following: Andrew Neil media commentator - 'ugly and contemptible' Liz McColgan athlete - 'the comments are just retarded' implies contitluity with the past. What is being said here by MacKenzie about English Roper H Scotland and Scottish people? How accurate, would you say, are some of the has written about the "symbolic statements being made in reaction to genocide" where qmbo MacKenzie's comments?

Overall, why do you think MacKenzie's nationalist fume. Finkbtein comments have generated this kind of reaction , he Hal- - why are people getting so upset about them? What ingredients do The prwnce ofd we need to include? We can examine the processes o f on the face of it, challenge notions of how national identity can be 'performed' by looking at identity.

In terms of locating a 'national Soviet Union as culture', we could include at least some of the following but two examp1e. Howewer, language Ts aspects: histories, myths, memories, languages, about exclusion, and it can be inclusive. For shifting conceptual framework. It is interesting to consider the extent E ry as part of a national belonging. But this also questions about the type of land and its purpose: to which the nation is spatialized within a geographical matrix, for example in national landscapes, symbolic b a l or urban?

Is it local rather than national? Who sites and the everyday landscapes of routine and 8 the land? Crucially, borders change and the domestic life. The key interest here is the symbolic hng of maps and painting of scenery can be stages upon which national identities are played out. In I id. That is, in what ways do Lg of national identity, and is sometimes tied in ay with religion, whereby notions of a 'common sport, dance, carnivals and the tourist industry serve as examples to look at occasions where the use of the and the 'destiny' of a chosen people can be body and 'emotional participation' and other activities ged to.

For example, we can look to Zionism, express national identity? Clearly, there are everyday er nationalism or the Third Reich 'of ways of performing national identity that sustain a 5" ' where the search for a lasting 'motherland' or rland' is desired. It is psychologically comforting e part of a future and to have a place in it. Importantly, nations also have a material culture. How is this imagined or performed? Edensor argues that there are a numbe! Edensor is interested in material national identity, as they are embedded with I aking of nation and national identity; he argues national significance and meaning; such material t is less about the transmission, via cultural elites, objects are, crucially, part of the everyday world, and oritative culture, invented traditions and folk these symbolic images are reincorporated into national s but more about the everyday and popular identity.

In other words, for Edensor, it is things such as e. It is suggested that 'high' and 'official' forms the films we watch, the food we eat, the buildings we ure are rather pass6 and that the 'everyday', in visit and the cars we drive that make us a 'nation'. Edensor is interested primarily in how nald's and Nike can be seen as a celebration of canization. He questions how national identity across time and space, and how it is contested, our understandings of national identity shift across time and space, the ways in which it is contested and the impact of globalization on 'our' sense of nationhood.

In exploring literature - it assesses the impact of popular culture on debates, Edensor argues that national identity is nationalist enterprises and asks us to look again at the ented, performed, spatialized and materialized. National identity is now beer can be as significant as a sonnet by Shakespeare. Part 2 Introduction to social divisions look what this says about modern R Bravehead and Scots British national identity. In national identities. One of the areas other words, what sustains the they consider is the development of power of national identity is the the highland myth in the cultural flexibility of making links within struggle to establish a Scottish 'the shared cultural matrix' identity.

Edensor's study is useful in tha The film Braveheart Figure 6. So, according to globalization. The political and Kobal Collection Ltd Edensor, national identity can 'general public' responses to the be viewed within the local and film revealed many complexities of similar way, Edensor also examines everyday through performance: contemporary national identities, the construction and use of the and practices, and also within and not just a Scottish one. Ukraine for example. So, are modern nationalis any better or worse than their nineteenth-centu versions?

Are they merely old prejudices in new Stopandthink In a globalized era, should we not be thinking of internationalism rather than Is there a future beyond nationalism?

Race and Ethnicity Defined

Is there one? World Bank? Do they not render nation states a What forces are at work here? We must wonder increasingly redundant? Yet a brief human rights, citizenship and identities do not scan of the daily newspapers testifies to the require a nation-state or a relationship to a persistence of national differences - such as the nation to exist.

But how do such politics exist a struggles between Russia and Georgia and the develop? Whose estate. Certainly, globalization has helped values are reflected in this universalism? Indeed, in , rather than fixed and reified, national the European context, we can also look to European has required us to look at different networks as perhaps offering a route out of the , international, postnational and restrictions of nationalism and nationalist sentiments.

Are we beyond nationalism The European Union is one such supranational e reach of universalism demanded that institution that could, potentially, deal with the social, f democracy, rights and citizenship are economic and political concerns and issues of a range changing global times? Are there credible of currently existing states within its geographical reach k s to the 'national'?

One obvious way is to 'ng more internationally than nationally - options to world or global citizenship rather and 'badge' them under a new European identity.

RELATED WORDS

Race, ethnicity and culture are concepts of extreme relevance in society today, and yet continue to be interpreted in various and often contradictory ways. Race, ethnicity and culture are concepts that are interpreted in various and often contradictory ways. This Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity and.

Would such a federal Europe gather support, though? Would it necessarily lead to a two-speed or two-tier of citizenship tied to particular states and Europe, with some areas lagging behind in terms of ideas of internationality have existed for a development and engagement with the 'project' of of time, but people have always struggled Europe? Aside from ing states. Processes of cosmopolitanism have these criticisms, questions have been raised regarding the rejection of the nation-state and national the European Union's approach to matters of and the formation of a single political, social immigration and citizenship, whereby the spectre of mic community.

Cosmopolitanism is strongly 'fortress Europe' has been alleged, indicating that the P anity and one-world and calls for anti-national European Union is less than welcoming to certain and loyalty. This is perhaps why such ideas minorities from other parts of the world. Other although two main ones have gained a particular en positioned such as transnational and currency in academe: federalism and consociationalism. Here Both of these ideas rely on changing existing o the work of authors such as David Held institutional arrangements rather than anything more ainer Baubock , who have argued radical or imaginative, and they are essentially about tional and multiple citizenships based on different groups accommodating each other and ew global realities.

Such theories have raised learning to live together. Federalism is a political philosophy and a system ut the movement of goods, capital and of government. As a philosophy it describes a group ccording to Soysal , for politicians, of people who are bound together with a governing nationalist politicians, the thought of open and usually elected head.

As a system of government, vould signify the death of the nation-state it refers to a system in which sovereignty is se of postnational politics. Fundamentally, is constitutionally divided between a centralized authority mining of national-based citizenships in and and constituent political units for example, the US bad idea? As we shall see, one concern here is federal government and states such as Alaska and ect of nation states 'losing control' of who can Hawaii. Federalism thus involves a federation: a system ot cross certain borders and enter particular where the power and right to govern is shared between.

In the global age of terrorism, these are fears national and state governments. In the European dismissed. We can also see a clash between context, federalists would like the European Union to tates and international institutions for take on the same kind of role of the federal government the European Court of Human Rights with of the USA, with countries such as the UK, Germany a human rights abuses in particular states.

Part 2 Introduction to social divisions Consociationalism is a social elites endorsed system of discussion on culture and identity. There ar 'power-sharing': it refers to a type of government that that are used loosely and widely to help us involves secured and guaranteed group representation of one's self, feelings and ideas. However, th in contexts where conflict is rife in divided societies. It also a number of theories that, in different has been best discussed by the political scientist Arend interconnected ways, allow us to Lijphart as a system of ideas to help regulate how identities are formed.

I ethnic conflict and tension in countries. One of the identity can refer to the way in which one is earliest examples of consociationalism can be traced individual on a personal level, being distinct back to the Netherlands in the early twentieth century, everyone else, such as the delineati and many of Lijphart's arguments are drawn from this name or, more broadly, whether one is country, where between the s and late s society In another way, identity can refer was divided into four non-territorial pillars - liberal, 'sameness' in the way that one shares comm Catholic, Calvinist and socialist.

L i e Durkheim, with, and is associated with consociationalistsare obsessed with social and political as being a member of an ethnic group stability, avoiding violence, enduring democracy and supporter of a particular football team. However, apart It is only in the past 50 years or so that from a few temporary projects, such as in the Lebanon on identity have become popular. One rea between and , it has rarely worked fully in according to Baumeister , is the practice as it calls for the accommodation of often social change over the centuries has increas impossible pressures and demands, given that, as a involved people having a more individual s system, it lacks accountability and deals in rather fixed they are and less of a feeling of be identities.

As political science theory, it has won prizes to, and at times indistinguishable fro winner of the Ethnic and Cultural Pluralism Award community and family. Yet, at the s in given by the American Political Science to research conducted by Canton a Association ,yet outside the theory it has problems. It also includ mentioned above, an individual's nam b To what extent are national identities just one Flicking through a telephone directory identity among many? In his book Discipline and Punish, for example, ps and categories, giving rise to the attributing of a Foucault argued that distinct ways of knowing Qn to a social identity.

Examples of common social and thinking about criminals and criminals' minds arc [tities attributed to groups include musicians, produced by penal discourses. However, the way bds', golfers, heterosexuals, celebrities, migrants and particular discourses, such as the state, religion or a1 hash smokers. Some of these identities are sport, can produce divergent versions of someone who on clear identifications with occupational roles, is a taxpayer, a cult member, a ballet dancer and a others correspond to general social roles and marksman all at the same time can also indicate the way relate to stereotypes.

It has been argued that in which identities can overlap. The second dimension 1 b n a l and social identities are not mutually exclusive. Canton and colleagues also suggest that: development of identity by which the concept of a b i l y , friends and nationality, alongside our work 'hybridity' of cultural identities, regarding ethnic b d lifestylelleisure identities, are routinely drawn identities emerges. For example, regarding ethnic bpon to construct our overarching social identities.

This suggests that there are no Canton et al. The way in which cultures have moved and continue to move throughout the world - for Lltiple identities example, the Jewish Diaspora, the slave trade and even hip-hop music - give testament to hybrid identities. First, 'discourses', assimilated into a different culture, but rather that in which spoken or written communication is something new is formed, contributing to the shaping in particular contexts, can produce varying of the modern world.

A closer look ;olin Wong - Chinese, working long poorly paid hours name-calling that my working in various jobs in local Chinese family continued to experience hopean, English or restaurants and shops.

Growing up in a large family were never really highlighted to My parents arrived in England in was bliss; even with all the me at primary school, so I grew the early s. Labels only Kong with three daughters, one tremendous fun. Being bilingual started being attached once son and their aspirations for a was the norm; we spoke I reached secondary school. They settled in Cantonese with our parents It was really only at that time rented accommodation in and English with others.

Anglican schools, yet my home them. Chinese box. When I clear Christmas, yet my family also However, on my first visit to Customs at the airport, I walk celebrated festivals such as Hong Kong for a vacation I felt through the European channe Chinese New Year; I believed in instantly comfortable with the When I look in the mirror, I do God, yet I continued to make people, the place, the language not see a Chinese face or an offerings to other deities; I and the culture.

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Within hours, English face. I just see plait I spoke English but also I submerged myself as a 'local' Me. Strange, but Universi f true identity. I felt English, whenever I visit Hong Kong, 1 but adversaries would remind I never feel like a tourist. The majority of the club social integration that migrant Celtic and Rangers are Scotland's members are to year-old communities and local two most successful football Scottish men who left Scotland communities create through clubs. Known together as the 'Old and migrated to Canada and the 'distinctive organizational practi Firm', the clubs have fan bases USA between and and For example, club members ha throughout much of the world; who have made North America come together to lobby television in Canada and the USA there are their home away from home.

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